• One Clip at a Time: Summer Institute 2019

    Are you ready to change the world?

    Then we are ready to help!  If you are an educator  looking to experience something truly beautiful and educationally compelling…if you are looking to make a lasting difference in your life as an educator and in the live’s of your students, then you should  register now for our Free One Clip Summer Institute

    • This two-day session will be conducted by One Clip/Three Village Educators, Irene Berman and Kate Hunter and will be held at the Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County in Glen Cove, New York, Tuesday, July 16 and Wednesday, July 17, 2019.  (9:00 am to 3:00 pm)
    • The first day of the session will include training on the One Clip curriculum, a tour of the museum, and a video conference with the President of One Clip at a Time .
    • The second day will include action planning and implementation, and a survivor testimonial.
    • A conference fee of $400 will be waived for all participating educators
    • The conference includes lunch both days
    • Attendees will receive their own One Clip Kit, which includes a copy of the Paper Clips film, an informational CD, detailed lesson plans, student journals and primary source documents.
    • The Institute addresses the requirements of the Dignity Act directly as well as Common Core Standards.

    Register online today at http://www.oneclipatatime.org/one-clip-on-the-road/

    Learn all about One Clip at a Time:

    All About One Clip at a Time

  • Lessons From the Holocaust: A New Generation Speaks Truth to Power

  • Press Release: “While There’s Life…”

    The Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County Presents

    While There’s Life…

    Poetry Reading and Book Signing by Ruth Minsky Sender

    Sunday, May 19, 2019, 3:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.

     

    Ruth Minsky Sender

    Glen Cove, NY… The Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County (HMTC) presents While There’s Life…  A poetry reading and book signing of by Holocaust survivor and author/poet Ruth Minsky Sender at the Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County.  Sunday, May 19, 2019, 3:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.

    The poems in her newest collection, While There’s Life…: Poems from the Mittelsteine Labor Camp (1944-1945), were written during Mrs. Minsky Sender’s incarceration as prisoner #55082 in the Nazi slave labor camp in Mittelsteine Germany.  She endeavored to depict scenes from her and other prisoners’ lives to give them courage and the will to continue living.

    Ruth Minsky Sender was born Rifkele Riva Minska to a Jewish family in Łodź, Poland.  After the war she and her family emigrated to the United States, settling on Long Island.  Mrs. Minsky Sender was a teacher of Jewish culture and history, specializing in the Holocaust.  She has written four other books about her Holocaust experiences including The Cage (1986).

    $10 Suggested donation to attend.  Light refreshments will be served. Seats are limited; reservations are recommended.  RSVP to (516) 571-8040 or info@hmtcli.org

    ###

  • The Rescue: Film + Live Concerto

    We invite you to join us for a screening of the documentary film, The Rescue, which tells the story of José Arturo Castellanos, one of the few Latin American Righteous Among the Nations and the only righteous from Central America.  Following the screening, the filmmakers Alvaro and Boris Castellanos will host a Q&A.  The audience will be treated to a musical performance by a six-piece Latin chamber orchestra featuring Grammy-award winning Latin Jazz master Luisito Quintero.

    At St. Patrick’s Church Parish Hall, Glen Cove

    Sunday, April 28, 1pm

    To register, visit sjjcc.org/rescuefilm

    Learn more about this documentary online:

    http://www.castellanosmovie.com/

    Community Partners

    Congregation Tifereth Israel • Glen Cove Child Day Care Center • Holocaust Memorial & Tolerance Center of Nassau County • Jewish Community Relations Council of Long Island • La Fuerza • North Country Reform Temple

    For more information, contact Susan Berman, Director of Community Engagement, (516)484-1545 Ext. 202, sberman@sjjcc.org

  • Press Release: But When We Started Singing…

     The Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County Presents But When We Started Singing… A One-Man Performance Inspired By Primo Levi Conceived and Performed by Bob SpiottoSunday, June 9, 2019 at 2:00 p.m.

    Bob Spiotto as Primo Levi

    Glen Cove, NY… The Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County (HMTC) presents, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Primo Levi, But When We Started Singing…  The performance will take place on Sunday, June 9, 2019 at 2:00 p.m at Welwyn Preserve, 100 Crescent Beach Road, Glen Cove, NY 11542.  This one-man performance, conceived and performed by Bob Spiotto, is inspired by the life and poetry of Holocaust survivor and world renowned author and poet and Italian-Jew, Primo Levi (1919-1987).

    Robert “Bob” Spiotto is a creative/artistic/management professional who has worked in arts and entertainment for more than 30 years. He holds a B.F.A. in Theater Performance from Hofstra University and a M.F.A. in Directing from The Catholic University of America.  Mr. Spiotto is currently the Director of Programs/Special Events at New York’s famous Friar’s Club.  Previously, he served as the first Executive/Artistic Director of the historic Suffolk Theater (theater/restaurant/bar), prior to which he worked at Hofstra University (1990-2012) as Executive Producer/Artistic Director for Hofstra Entertainment; Artistic Director of Community Arts Programs for the Hofstra Cultural Center (music, theater, cultural, original programming), and Director/Producer of Special Events (festivals, conferences, public programs).  He served on the faculty of Hofstra’s School of Continuing Education, taught classes for Hofstra’s Summer Camps, and was an adjunct professor in their School of Communication as well as Hofstra’s New College. Mr. Spiotto has received awards from Hofstra University for his distinguished service and teaching accomplishments.

    In addition to his many accomplishments, he has directed hundreds of theater productions at various regional and professional theaters, schools and universities, as well as for various organizations and companies.  He has also created and appeared in numerous one-man shown exploring the lives of P.T Barnum, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Primo Levi Michaelangelo, Sholom Aleichem, and others.  A trio of his critically acclaimed one-man musical tributes include That’s Amore:  A Tribute to Mr. Hollywood Musical – Harry Warren, Shades of Grey: A Musical Tribute to Joel Grey, and Courting the Jester: A Salute to Danny Kaye, which was re-worked and presented at Lincoln Center.

    Primo Levi was born in Turin, Italy in 1919, to a family of assimilated and fairly non-religious Jews with Spanish roots.  In 1943, he joined a band of partisans devoted to fighting Germans and Italian facists.  Levi spent 10 months at the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz and was liberated in 1945.  In 1977 he retired from his position as manager of a chemical factory in Turin, devoting himself exclusively to writing until the time of his controversial death on April 11, 1987 in the apartment building where he was born and eventually took up residence.  Levi is known for his novels and poetry collections such as If This Is a Man, The Periodic Table, If Not Now, When,  and The Drowned and the Saved.

    $10 suggested donation to attend.  Light refreshments will be served. Seats are limited; reservations are recommended.  RSVP to (516) 571-8040 or info@hmtcli.org

  • You’re Invited to The Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County’s Tolerance Benefit: “Taste of Long Island” and Silent Auction Monday, May 6, 2019, at 6:00 p.m.

    Glen Cove, NY…  Experience a taste of Long Island’s best restaurants at the Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County’s (HMTC) annual Tolerance Benefit: “Taste of Long Island.”  This year’s benefit features a tasting event and silent auction on Monday, May 6, 2019, at 6 p.m. at Westbury Manor, 1100 Jericho Turnpike, Westbury, NY.  In addition, three middle and high-school students will be presented with the Friedlander Upstander Award.

    Bidding at the Silent Auction

    The Tolerance Benefit is a way for donors, volunteers, Holocaust Survivors and members of the community to join together to raise money in support of HMTC’s Holocaust, anti-bias and anti-bullying education programs. Those donations make it possible to provide transportation for school groups to visit HMTC’s world-class museum and to hear first-hand testimony from a Holocaust Survivor and for nurses and law enforcement officers to participate in free training workshops.

    The Friedlander Upstander Award, presented by HMTC and the Claire Friedlander Family Foundation, in conjunction with the Nassau and Suffolk County Police Departments, is awarded to Nassau and Suffolk County middle school and high school students who have acted as Upstanders against bullying or intolerance in any of its forms. Recipients receive a $2,500 scholarship.

    The Tolerance Benefit is sponsored by Samar Hospitality, the Ike, Molly & Steven Elias Foundation, Stewart Title Associates, The Claire Friedlander Family Foundation, and Mojo-Stumer Associates. Other Sponsorship opportunities are available. Tickets are $135 a person and a ten-pack of tickets is available for $1,200. To make a donation or purchase tickets or a sponsorship online visit http://weblink.donorperfect.com/tolerance2019.

    For more information about sponsorship packages and to purchase tickets, contact Deborah Lom at (516) 571-8040 or dlom@hmtcli.org.

  • Friedlander Upstander Award Winner: Sage Gladstone

    Sage Gladstone (3rd from right), a student at South Woods Middle School was a winner of the 2018 Friedlander Upstander Award at at HMTC’s 2018 Tolerance Benefit. Her essay below demonstrates that she has acted as an Upstander against bullying and intolerance.

    Taking action, helping others, and making a difference.  Those are my values and my purpose in life.  I love constantly pushing for a better world, not just speaking about it.  I take initiative and make my ideas come to life.  My sense of responsibility to the world outside of mine is what drives me to help people.  I want to live in a world that is caring, promotes peace, and celebrates differences.  However, I know that can’t happen overnight, and maybe can’t ever happen, but I wake up every day to work towards my goal, rise above obstacles, and be an Upstander for all.

    I have been striving to fulfill that goal of mine since I was five years old.  When I was in kindergarten, I saw that there was a girl a few grades above me who didn’t have any hair.  I felt sad, confused, and worried that she may get made fun of or laughed at, so I wanted to help.  I wanted to show her that someone cared and was thinking about her, so I went home that day to ask my mom if I could cut my hair and just give it to her,  My mom said I couldn’t’ do exactly that but I could donate my hair to people just like her.  Even in my five-year-old mind, I was totally on board with the idea that I could make someone’s day or life better from just one small act.  A few months later, I cut my hair to the point where it looked like I should be dancing the Charleston with my flapper friends, and donated it to Locks of Love.  I did that two more times when I was in fourth grade and this past summer, between seventh and eighth grade.  I realized I was slowly making a change… a change that I wanted to see in our world.

    It has always been a priority of mine to acknowledge others and their feelings because it’s important to appreciate the work that everyone does.  I try to spread my appreciation to people who make our world go around but are sometimes forgotten like the bus drivers, security guards, custodians, and lunch servers.   I also think it is important to stand up to unkind behavior wherever I am.  I will not tolerate rude remarks, bullying, or peer pressure.  Even if doing the right thing is the unpopular choice to make in a situation, I will do it for the sake of the people being hurt.

    Last year, I began many new initiatives at my school to help work towards the change I want to see.  For example, I organized a welcoming committee that invited all of our new students to come and play games and talk about their experiences in our school so far.  I wanted to make sure all the students felt noticed and welcomed.

    When I was home sick with the flu last year, I watched a video online about an amazing non-profit organization called Days for Girls.  This organization assembles sustainable feminine hygiene kits to donate to girls in impoverished areas around the world such as Nepal, parts of India, Haiti and so many other places.  Without the proper materials, these girls end up missing up to five days a week each month with most girls ending up having a deprived education.  Without an education it’s hard for these girls to achieve their goals and pursue their dreams.  These kits aren’t only giving them the items every girl needs, it’s giving them a future… a life to look forward to.  These girls are punished for something that is so natural in every girl’s life and are sent to huts to deal with it by themselves.  While they are in these huts, most commonly refereed to as chhaupadis, their biggest fear isn’t trying to make sure they are staying clean and healthy, it’s worrying about being raped.  These huts are in the middle of nowhere with hardly any protection from any of those vicious men.  After I watched the video, I went to their website to find the Days for Girls’ phone number so I could contact them and see what I could do to help.  When I called, they listed a bunch of volunteer opportunities for me to be apart of.  I thought hosting a drive to collect the materials needed for these kits was the best option.  Once I recovered from the flu and was back at school, I attended a meeting with my feminist club and shared what I had learned about the organization, and pitched the idea of holding a drive.  My club advisers and peers loved the idea but we couldn’t start it just yet because it was too late in the year.  So, we saved my idea for this year.  Over the summer I kept in contact with Days for Girls, collecting all the information I needed to launch a successful drive.  In the fall, I went back to school and planned logistics for this drive to work in meetings with my principal and many conversations with Days for Girls representatives.  Soon, I was ready to put boxes out and have donations roll in.  I really wanted this to be a successful drive so I contacted a representative named Kathy from a local team and asked her to come and speak at my school on behalf of Days for Girls.  We set up a date, and asked students to come listen and learn about Days for Girls at their lunch periods; we had a rather well turn our and even a boy showed up.  It was amazing to have my peers have the opportunity to be educated on an organization that its so important and amazing but yet a forgotten world issue.  After Thanksgiving break we put out donation boxes and I created posters to decorate our school with.  I loved Kathy’s presentation, but I still wanted to teach more about this wonderful organization, so I created a presentation and lectured in health classes about why it is important to donate.  After about a month of running the toiletry drive, my mom and I delivered our four overflowing boxes of donations to Dumont, New Jersey, where Kathy lives.  Throughout this whole experience, I kept in touch with Allie, a representative at the Days for Girls headquarters in Washington State.  After multiple calls and emails, Allie reached out to me and asked if she could feature my story in the Days for Girls monthly newsletter.  Of course I said yes, and Allie congratulated me for being the youngest volunteer to be featured.  My responsibility does not end with one successful drive.  I’m still committed to spreading the message of Days for Girls and will continue to raise awareness at my school.  Next month, I will hold a second drive as well as continue to educate my peers with a global awareness exhibit I’ve organized at my school’s awareness fair.

    The problems needed to be addressed in order to achieve my ideal world does not stop with menstruation.  While we have different religions, talents, hobbies, and beliefs, I know we all have the power to be kind.  I am driven to encourage kindness not only through the halls of my school, but also out in our world.  I am currently in the process of spearheading many kindness movements at my school.  The main project is the Blue Box Campaign where students receive a classmate’s name and are encouraged to write an anonymous compliment about them.  I am also setting it up for teachers.  The main purpose of this movement is to encourage people to make others feel good about themselves and to spread the idea that we can all uplift each other with a simple gesture.  I’m also launching a kindness mural project, where all students are asked to write their definition of kindness.  After everyone’s definition is collected, I will create the mural in a hallway at my school.  The process of each student writing their unique definition of kindness will make them have to consider what being kind actually means to them.  I will also kick off a Token of Kindness Project where Peer Mediators will carry around stickers that have quotes abut kindness on them.  When we see acts of kindness during the school day we will give them out.  This project is designed to let everyone know that all acts of kindness, big or small, never go unnoticed.  To tie all of the kindness projects together, I will be organizing another kindness moment called Kind Hands of South Woods for students and teachers to paint their hands and leave their hand prints on a piece of paper.  This resembles their pledge to be kind and contribute positivity to our school.  I hope I will be able to cement the value of Kindness into the minds of my peers as I launch these initiatives.

    My sense of responsibility to change our world for the better and promote kindness doesn’t just end with humans, I believe I should show the same respect to animals.  I became a vegetarian in kindergarten because I felt really bad at the thought that I was eating another living thing.  However, sticking with those eating habits got difficult especially at such a young age and I was only a vegetarian sporadically, until this past summer when I watched a few documentaries about the vegan diet.  Last month marked 6 month of being vegan, this experience proved to me that helping other human or not is something that I care strongly about and I am willing to do it and not give up.

    “Be the change you want to see in the world” is a powerful quote that I think best sums up my vision for being an Upstander.  I will always push for a better world and challenge myself on how I can make an even larger impact than the day before.  Through high school, college, adulthood, and when I’m old, I will continue to be an Upstander, someone who will never forget the importance of advocating for others and love for helping them.  I hope to spread this message of helping the people around you and thinking about lives beyond your own to all the beautiful humans on this planet we share.

    Are you an Upstander?

    If you have a story that sounds like Sage’s and you are a Middle or High School student from Nassau or Suffolk Counties, share it with us! You might be one of our 2019 Friedlander Upstander Winners.

    Apply via the link below:

    Friedlander Upstander Awards

    Or mail to:

    Helen Turner | Friedlander Upstander Award, 100 Crescent Beach Road, Glen Cove, NY 11542

    For more information please call: (516) 571-8040 or email helenturner@hmtcli.org.

     

     

  • “Dirty Jewess”

    “Dirty Jewess: Testimony by a Child of Auschwitz Survivors and Her Escape from Soviet Occupation and Antisemitism” by Silvia Fishbaum

    Sunday, March 10, 2019 at 1:00 pm at HMTC

    A Unique Memoir about Jewish Life under Communism in Postwar Czechoslovakia

    Silvia Fishbaum, the child of Holocaust Survivors, will share her story about growing up in an Orthodox Jewish family during the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia.  She will describe the oppression and antisemitism that her family faced, and her bold decision to escape from Communist tyranny.  After the program, she will sign copies of her unique memoir, Dirty Jewess: A Woman’s Courageous Journey to Religious and Political Freedom.

    $10 suggested donation.  Please RSVP to (516) 571-8040 or info@hmtcli.org

  • Washington’s Promise to Minorities and its Meaning for our Center

     

    Washington’s Promise to Minorities and its Meaning for our Center

    by Frank Miller-Small

    It’s now no more that tolerance is spoken of as it were the indulgence of one class of people that another enjoyed the exercise of their inherent natural rights…

    … the Government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance…

    Every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig tree and there shall be no one to make him afraid.

    — excerpted from George Washington’s letter to
    the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island, 1790

    Our country’s rising tide of intolerance toward minorities caused me to wonder about our founders’ values and, if knowing that, might help our Center foster greater tolerance.  I wanted to know if, as some claim, we were intended to be a white Christian nation, relegating minorities to an inferior status.  Or, did our founders envision an egalitarian, multi-cultural America, with different groups living in harmony with each other?  Were Americans, perhaps, of mixed opinions on this issue? My search for answers led me to an insightful collection of essays entitled, “Washington’s Rebuke to Bigotry.”

    This book, written mostly by well- credentialed scholars, educators, and legal experts, explores the significance of our first president’s important, yet relatively little known, 1790 letter to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island. It further examines subsequent American responses to the intent of the letter.   To better comprehend the letter’s meaning at the time, the volume begins by providing an historical perspective, which I’ll briefly summarize below.

    At the letter’s writing, Rhode Island, founded by Puritan dissident Roger Williams in the mid-17th century, had long granted religious freedom to minorities, much to the disdain of the other colonies.  Concerned that its rights would be trampled upon, Rhode Island delayed ratifying statehood until the Bill of Rights (1791) promised religious liberty.

    Washington celebrated the new country’s unity by visiting Newport, and, while there, several religious groups gave welcoming speeches, the most memorable by Moses Seixas, president of the Hebrew Congregation. Several days later, Washington penned his famous letter, responding to the Jewish hope that America would treat them with greater tolerance than had been their long experience. Washington’s letter, highlights of which are quoted above, assured the Jews that all minorities would have equal freedom of religion under the law.  Moreover, the government, in our current idiom, would provide protection from “hate crimes” and other forms of prejudice. These promises, from a head of a national government, were revolutionary, unprecedented in the Western World.

    However, they didn’t arise in a vacuum. The amazing success of Rhode Island’s religious freedom experiment provided the main inspiration and model.  Enlightenment ideas and the ideals and recent victories of Madison and Jefferson to wean Virginia away from a state-supported Anglican Church also lent support.

    The intention of the letter and the way it was interpreted went well beyond promising religious freedom to the Jews.  Widely circulated, read and discussed, it gave hope of toleration to all minorities.  More than merely a legal doctrine, this letter presented a vision of a moral, idealistic, harmonious national community.

    Although embraced by minorities, many intellectuals, some leaders, and other sympathizers, the struggle for the fulfillment of this vision had just begun.  Several states continued to use tax support to promote the Christian religion.  Many states had religious tests for public office.  Remarkably, the main reason for eventual Church-State separation derived from the plethora of competing Protestant sects, each fearing the other’s government control, and the last government established Church persisted until 1833, in Massachusetts.  It took several more decades to attain full legal toleration of all religions at the state level.

    America’s initial ambivalence toward minorities, shown by the disparity between the letter’s lofty ideals and the states’ stubborn opposition to them, set the stage for subsequent ambivalent development.  This ambivalence began even with the founders’ original vision which contained some striking contradictions. Washington’s statements and the year-later Bill of Rights didn’t mention the rights of women, ethnic or racial minorities, or slaves.  Moreover, the negative ramifications of this ambivalence played out throughout most of US history, where Jews and other minorities were, at best, merely tolerated by the White Protestant majority.

    This conflict between ideals and realities exposes one of the central American moral paradoxes.  Although there has been and continues to be tremendous discrimination toward many minority groups, this co-exists with the ever-present and potent promise of an inclusive America.  This promise has roused the voices of toleration for many compassionate documents  and court decisions as well as fueled minority rights struggles by individuals and groups, such as the Emancipation Proclamation, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Marriage Equality Act.

    Armed with the knowledge of the paradoxical nature of Washington’s original vision and its aftermath, we can use this to help our Center broaden the circle of tolerance. We can use Washington’s promise as a springboard to conversations about our present state of minority rights.  We can hold up the examples of the choices American upstanders, such as George Washington and Martin Luther King, made to promote greater minority inclusion as courageous role models. We can employ the circumstances surrounding upstander and opposition choices to initiate and work through difficult and complex conversations about inclusion.

    We can relate these difficult conversations to the important idea, implied in Washington’s letter, that democracy can only work if people cooperate, and this can only happen if people feel free from prejudicial fear. Ideally, as John Dewey said, schools should be the training ground for democracy, the place where young people learn peaceful, cooperative living and its connection to the democratic process.  Unfortunately, many schools don’t have the time, interest, or capability to do this.

    Our Center fills this important void.  We make the democratic connection and provide the unique opportunity to have the aforementioned difficult conversations, helping students recognize and resolve differences by working through them in a civil way.  During this process, as Adam Strom, Facing History educator says, we help them “… separate fact from rumor by breaking own stereotypes and countering myth and misinformation.”  This is what our Center does so well and one reason why our Center is so much needed, particularly, in these troubled times.

    If we can integrate the lessons borne of the American struggle toward inclusion with the lessons of tolerance learned from the Holocaust, this dual focus will brighten our torch to illuminate the dark places in our midst.

    To charge our energies for this challenge, we can summon the words of African –American poet, Langston Hughes, to resound in our ears:

    O, yes I say it plain

    America never was America to me,

    And yet I swear this oath –

    America will be!

    May his faith be ours, and may it inspire us, as we go back to the trenches, to carry forth the spirit of Washington’s letter, despite the strong headwinds, and continue our vital work.

     

     

  • An Educator’s Journey of Spiritual Resistance, Courage and Resilience

    An Educator’s Journey of Spiritual Resistance, Courage and Resilience

    The Holocaust and Jewish Resistance
    Teachers Program

    A presentation by Meryl Menashe, Holocaust Educator

    Thursday, December 7, 2017, at 11 a.m. 

    HMTC
    Welwyn Preserve, 100 Crescent Beach Road
    Glen Cove, NY

    “Nothing. Absolutely nothing remains of my childhood, of my youth, not even the grave of my dead father.” – Vladka Meed, Polin Museum

    The Holocaust devastated Jewish life in Europe. To teach the beauty of that life, spiritual resistance during the Holocaust using personal narratives and ensure that it would not be forgotten, the Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Teachers Program was born. Founded by Vladka Meed, 32 years ago, the program has brought over 1100 educators to Holocaust sites and sent them back to their classrooms armed with tools and strategies to bring Holocaust education to all 50 states. Presentation will include sites we witness including concentration camps, ghettos, memorials, museums and death camp; lessons learned of the unfathomable depths of mankind’s cruelty, and the courage of the human spirit through small, large and heroic acts of resistance.

    During our journey, we observe antisemitism and memorial desecration; rejoice as evidence that the Jewish people triumphed through experiencing Israeli students singing Hatikvah at Treblinka; Shabbat in Lublin and Hebrew prayers chanted at Birkenau and so much more. The roads through towns take us to each place; roads in existence during the Shoah, and still lead us there today.

    Join us on an educators’ photo journey through the Holocaust.